CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY QUALITIES OF ACHA-GUAVA FLOUR BLEND BISCUITS

  • J A Ayo Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria
  • V I Ayo Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria
  • R G Johnson Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University Wukari, Wukari, Nigeria

Abstract

This study investigated the chemical, phytochemical composition, physical and sensory qualities of acha-guava flour blends and biscuit.  Flour blends were produced by substituting guava flour into acha flour at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 %. Proximate, chemical (vitamin, vitamin and phytochemical) composition, pasting functional properties of the flour blends and the physical and sensory qualities of the produced biscuits were determined.  The carbohydrate and protein decreased from 81.60to 77.30 and 8.32to 7.70%, respectively while the moisture, fat, fibre and ash content of the flour blend increased from 8.08to 8.44, 1.28to 2.63, 0.21to 2.5and 0.20 to 1.62%, respectively, with increase in the added guava flour (5-25%). Water absorption, foaming, and swelling capacity of acha-guava flour increased from 2.35to 2.83, 4.13to 7.65 and 5.75to 7.74ml/g, respectively while the bulk density and oil absorption capacity decreased from 0.89to .85/cm3 and 2.10 to 1.81 ml/g respectively, with increase in the added guava flour (5-25%). The peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and setback decreased from 2336.83 to 1107, 1535to 935, 801 to 172, 3719.8to 1863, and 2186.0 to 928RVS, respectively, with increase in the added guava flour. Iron, carotenoid, vitamin C and total phenol increased from 4.0 to 25.0ppm, 5.36 to 14.17, 1.94 to 7.96, and 0.22 to 0.86mg/100g respectively, while phosphorus decreased from 1110.10 to 814.3ppm with increase in percentage of added guava flour. There was an increase in break strength and spread ratio of the biscuit from 1.35 to 2.64kg and 4.53 to 5.15, respectively, as a result of the increase in level of guava-flour substitution. The reverse was observed for the thickness, diameter, volume and weight of the biscuit which decreased from 0.88 to 0.60cm, 4.34 to 4.13cm, 13.05 to 8.00cm3, and 11.50 to 10.70g respectively. The average means scores of colour, texture, taste, odour, crispiness, and general acceptability of the biscuits ranged from 4.60 to 7.65, 5.50 to 6 to 6.85, 6.10 to 7.45, 5.80 to 6.85, 5.55 to 6.85and 6.20 to 7.95. The sample, 95:5 % acha-guava blends is the most preferred and acceptable with average mean score of 7.95 with corresponding increment of 0.28, 2.22, 79.38, and 1.3% of ash content, protein, fat and crude fibre, respectively.

References

Abder-Kader Z.M, (2000).Enrichment of Egyptian “Balady” bread.part 1Baking Studies, physical and sensory evaluation of enrichment with decorticated crackedbroadbean flour (Viciafaba L.). Nahrung 44 (6): 418-421.

Abulude F.O. (2005). Distribution of selected minerals in some Nigerian white bread.Nig.Food Journal. 23: 139-147.

Adebowale, A.A., Sanni, S.A. & Oladapo, F.O. (2008). Chemical, functional and sensory properties of instant yam-Breadfruit flour. Nigerian Food Journal, 26 (1):2-12

Adoukonou-Sagbadja, H., Wagner, C., Dansi, A., Ahlemeyer, J., Daienou, O., Akpagana, K., Ordon, F. & Friedt, W. (2007). Genetic diversity and population differientiation of traditional fonio millet (Digitaria spp.) landraces from different agro-ecological zones of West Africa. Theoritical and Applied Genetics, 115 (7): 917-931

Agu, H.O., Ezeh, G.C. & Jideani, A.I.O. (2007). Quality assessment of Acha-based biscuit improved with bambara nut and unripe plantain. African Journal of Food Science, 8 (5): 278-289.

Akpata, M.I. & Akubor, P.I. (1999). Chemical composition and selected functional properties of sweet Orange (citrus sinensis) seed flour. Plant Food Human Nutrition, 54:353-362.

Amin Mukhrizah O. (2006). Antioxidant capacity ofmethanolic and water extracts prepared from food-processing byproducts. J Sci Food Agric 86: 778–84.

Anyika, J. U. &Uwaegbute, A. C. (2005).Frequency of consumption and nutrient content of some snacks eaten by
9
adolescent female secondary and university students in Abiastate.Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Science, 26 (2): 10-15.

Association of Offical Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2012). Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC, (W. Horwitc Ed.) 16th Edition. Washington D.C: Association of Offical Analytical Chemists.

Ayo J.A, Ayo V.A, Nkama I, Adewori R
(2007). Physicochemical, in-vitro digestibility and organoleptic evaluation of acha-wheat biscuit supplemented with soybean flour. Nigerian Food J. 25:77-79;

Ayo, J.A, Ikuomola, D.S, Esan,Y.O, Onuoha. O.G, Ayo, V.A & Ekele, V. (2010). Effect Of Added Defatted Beniseed on the Quality of Acha Based Biscuits. Continental Journal of Food Science and Technology 4: 7 – 13.

Ayo, J. A. & E. Andrew (2016). Effect of added Bambara groundnut on the quality of acha-date palm based biscuit.International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science, 4(3): 34-38.

Ayo, J.A.,& Gidado F.E. (2018). Physicochemical, Phytochemical and Sensory Evaluation OfAcha-Carrot Blend Biscuit.Current Journal of Applied Science, 25(5): 1-15.

Azzolini M, Jacomino P. A.,& Bron I.U.(2004).Indices to evaluate postharvest quality of guavas under different maturation stages. Pesquisa Agropecu´aria Bras, 39: 139–45.

Brabin B.J.,&Coulter J.B. (2003). Nutrition-associated disease. In: CookGC, Zumla AI. Manson's tropical diseases. London: Saunders pp.561-580.

Butt, S.M.& Batool, R. (2010).Nutritional and Functional Properties of Some Promising Legumes Protein Isolates. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9, 373-

379.

Chukwu O. & Abdul-kadir A.J.(2008).Proximate Chemical Composition of Acha(DigitariaexilisandDigitariaiburua) Grains, Journal of Food Technology,6: 214-216.

Cruz, J.F., Beavogui, F. & Drame, D. (2011). Le fonio, une cereale africaine. Agricultures tropicales en poche. Qua/cta/presses agronomiques de Gembloux.Versailles, France. pp175

Dabels N, Igbabul B.D, & Amove J. I.B. (2016).Nutritional Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Cookies from Wheat, Acha and Mung Bean Composite Flours.International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.5(6):401-406

Glaucia S. V, Rosiane L C, Miriam H & Ana C K (2012).Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Processing and Packaging, First Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.p453

Igbabul, B. D., Num, G. & Amove, J. (2014). Quality Evaluation of Composite Bread Produced from Wheat, Maize and Orange fleshed Sweet Potato flours. American Journal of Food Science Technology. 2. 4: 109-115.

Ishinwu, C. N. (2005). Qualities of cookies produced by partial replacement of wheat with plaintain (Musa paradisca) flour.Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Science. Vol. 26(2): 23-25.

Jideani, I.A., Takeda Y. & Hizukuri S. (1991). Structures and physico-chemical properties of starches from Acha (Digitaria exilis), Iburu (Digitaria iburua), and Tamba (Eleusine coracana). Cereal Chemistry, 73:677-685.

Jideani, I.A. & Akingbala, J.O. (1993). Some physiochemical properies of acha (Digitaria exilis Staph) and iburu (Digitaria iburua Staph) grains. Journal of Sciences and Food Agriculture, 63:369-371.
10
Jideani I.A., Owusu R.K.& Muller H.G (1994).Proteins of acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf): Solubility fractionation, gel filtration, and electrophoresis of protein fractions, Food Chemistry, 51, 51-59.

Jideani IA, Takeda Y, & Hizukuri S (1996). Structures and physicochemical properties of starches from acha (Digitaria exilis), iburu (D. iburua) and tamba (Eleusine coracana) Cereal Chem. 73:677–685. [Google Scholar]

Jideani I. A. (2012). Digitaria exilis (acha/fonio), Digitaria iburua (iburu/fonio) and Eluesine coracana (tamba/finger millet) – Non-conventional cereal grains with potentials. Scientific Research and Essays, 7 (45) ; 3834-3843. http://www.academicjournals.org Accessed 15th February, 2013. ISSN 1992-2248 ©2012 Academic Journals.

Jimenez-Escrig A, Rinc´on M, Pulido R, &Saura-Calixto F. (2001). Guava fruit (PsidiumguajavaL.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary fiber.Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 49: 5489–93.

Joel Ndife1, Fatima Kida & Stephen Fagbemi (2014). Production and quality assessment of enriched cookies from whole wheat and full fat soya European Journal of Food Science and Technology 2(1):19- 28,

Kalia, M. (2002).Food Analysis and Quality Control.Kalyani Pub.New Delhi p.167.

Kader A.A. (2002). Quality parameters of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products. In: Lamikanra O, editor. Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables—Science, Technology, and Market. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p 11–20.

Kaushal, P., Kumar,V. & Sharma, H.K. (2012). Comparative study of physico-chemical, functional, anti-nutritional and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta), rice (oryza sativa), pegeon pea (cajanus cajan) flour and their blends. LWT. Food Science and Technology 7(2):1243-1256

Krishnaiah D, Devi T, Bono A, & Sarbatly R (2009). Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants. J.Med. Plants Res., 3(2): 67-72.

Lim Yau Yana, Lim ThengTeng, & Tee Jing Jhi (2006). Antioxidant Properties of Guava Fruit: Comparison with Some Local Fruits,Sunway Academic Journal 3: 9–20.

MacDougall, D. (2002). Colour in Food. Woodhead publishing. Abington, Cambridge. P. 190-211; 278-286.

Millward D.J, & Jackson A.A. (2004). Protein/energy ratios of current diets indeveloped and developing countries compared with a safe protein/energy ratio: implications for recommended protein and amino acid intakes. Publ. Health Nutr. 7: 387-405.

Milson T.S & Kirk P.C (1980).Legumes in human nutrition.Food and Agriculture Organisation Nutrition Studies, 19: 223 – 235.

Morris, V.J. (1990). Starch gelation and retrogradation. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 1:2-6.

National Research Council (NRC) (1989). Grains; Fonio (Acha). In:Lost Crops of Africa. National Academy Press,Washington DC, USA. pp. 59-75.

Olapade, A.A., Akingbala, J.O., Oguntunde, A.O. & Falade, K.O. (2011). Effect of processing method on the quality of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour for akara preparation. Plant Food for Human Nutrition, 58:1-10.

Onwuka, G.I. (2005). Food Analysis and Instrumentation: Theory and Practice. Nigeria: Naphathali Prints.pp 95-96

Priyanka P. l., Kayla E, Rajitha S., Loius S, Simon O, Lloyd T. W, Josh H & Martha V. (2016). Development of a Functional Food Product Using Guavas. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 7: 927-937.

Sanaa, R. & El-Sayed, M.A. (2004). Pasting
11
properties of starch and protein in selected cereals and quality of their food products. Food Chemistry, 95:9-18.

Sandra M. B, Flávia M. V, Farinazzi-Machado, Ricardo de AlvaresGoulart, Anna CláudiasaadB, Alda M, Machado B &Cláudia C T (2012). Psidiumguajava (Guava): A Plant of Multipurpose Medicinal Applications. Journal of Med Aromat Plants. Vol. x1(104): 1-6.

Sanjinez-Argandona, E. J.; Cunha, R. &L.;Hubinger, M. D (2005). Evaluation of total carotenoids and ascorbic acid in osmotic pretreated guavas during convective drying. Italian Journal of Food Science, v. 17, n. 3, p. 305-314.



Uddin, M.S., Hawlader, M.N.A., Ding, Luo, & Mujumdar, A.S. (2002).Degradation of ascorbic acid in dried guava during storage.J.Food Engineering. 51:21-26.

Temple V.J. and Bassa J.D (1991). Proximate
chemical composition of ‘Acha’ (Digitaria exilis) grain, J. Sci. FoodAgric. 56, 561-563.

Villanueva-Suarez, M.J., Redondo-Cuenca, A., Rodriguez-Sevilla, M.D. & Martinez, de las Hara M. . (2003). Charaterisation of non-starch polysaccharides content from different edible organs of some vegetables, determined by GC and HPLC: Comparative study. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (20): 5990-5995.
Published
2020-12-24